Volume 177 , 1 August 2017, Pages 228-236 Cigarette smoking is associated with amplified age-related volume loss in subcortical brain regions Author links open overlay panel Timothy C.Durazzoab Smokers showed greater age-related subcortical brain volume loss than non-smokers. In these adults, 22–70 years of age, older smokers showed the most volume loss. Subcortical white matter (WM), thalamus, cerebellar cortex, and corpus callosum were most affected. Higher cigarette pack-years related to smaller volumes in several subcortical regions. Magnetic resonance imaging studies of cigarette smoking-related effects on human brain structure have primarily employed voxel-based morphometry, and the most consistently reported finding was smaller volumes or lower density in anterior frontal regions and the insula. Much less is known about the effects of smoking on subcortical regions. We compared smokers and non-smokers on regional subcortical volumes, and predicted that smokers demonstrate greater age-related volume loss across subcortical regions than non-smokers. Non-smokers (n = 43) and smokers (n = 40), 22–70 years of age, completed a 4 T MRI study. Bilateral total subcortical lobar white matter (WM) and subcortical nuclei volumes were quantitated via FreeSurfer.
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25, 2016-- Philip Morris International Inc. (“PMI”) (NYSE/Euronext Paris: PM) today is recognized as a global leader in its action on climate change. For the third consecutive year, the company is on the CDP’s ‘Climate A List’ for taking comprehensive action to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change, and for its transparent disclosure process. CDP, formerly known as the Carbon Disclosure Project, is the leading international not-for-profit organization assessing the work of companies worldwide in the area of climate change. Thousands of businesses submit annual climate disclosures to CDP for independent assessment against its scoring methodology. PMI’s ranking places the company among the top 9% of corporations, known as “A Listers.” CDP’s Climate Change benchmark report is produced at the request of 827 investors with assets of US$100 trillion. Commenting on the results, PMI’s Head of Environmental Sustainability, Andy Harrop, said: “We’re very pleased to be included on the CDP A List again, and remain dedicated to playing our part in limiting global warming. Building on the reduction of 200,000 tons of CO2 since 2010 across our operations, and our continued action to promote sustainable tobacco production and environmental improvements across our value chain, next year we will announce a suite of new targets based directly on climate science.” “PMI encourages strong action on climate change and supported an ambitious outcome to COP21 in Paris last December. With the Paris Agreement now entering into force, we look forward to working with others in facing the challenges and opportunities of climate change mitigation and adaptation.” The Climate A List is released today in CDP’s report, Out of the starting blocks: Tracking progress on corporate climate action, which establishes the baseline for corporate climate action and recognizes that global corporations have started the transition towards a low-carbon economy, with some already capitalizing on the opportunities this affords.